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Once in the White House , Wilson achieved significant progressive reform.

Congress passed the Underwood-Simmons Act, which reduced the tariff on imports and imposed a new federal income tax. Other accomplishments included child labor laws, an eight-hour day for railroad workers and government loans to farmers. Additionally, Wilson nominated the first Jewish person to the U. Supreme Court , Louis Brandeis , who was confirmed by the Senate in On May 7, , a German submarine torpedoed and sank the British ocean liner Lusitania , killing more than 1, people including Americans.

Wilson continued to maintain U.

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Although the president had advocated for peace during the initial years of the war, in early German submarines launched unrestricted submarine attacks against U. Around the same time, the United States learned about the Zimmerman Telegram, in which Germany tried to persuade Mexico to enter into an alliance against America. The agreement included the charter for the League of Nations , an organization intended to arbitrate international disputes and prevent future wars.

Wilson had initially advanced the idea for the League in a January speech to the U. In September of that year, the president embarked on a cross-country speaking tour to promote his ideas for the League directly to the American people.

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On the night of September 25, on a train bound for Wichita, Kansas , Wilson collapsed from mental and physical stress, and the rest of his tour was cancelled. On October 2, he suffered a stroke that left him partially paralyzed. Both times it failed to gain the two-thirds vote required for ratification. The League of Nations held its first meeting in January ; the United States never joined the organization. The era of Prohibition was ushered in on January 17, , when the 18th Amendment, banning the manufacture, sale and transportation of alcohol, went into effect following its ratification one year earlier.

Jimmy Carter’s Early Life and Start in Politics

In , Wilson vetoed the National Prohibition Act or Volstead Act , designed to enforce the 18th Amendment; however, his veto was overridden by Congress. Prohibition lasted until , when it was repealed by the 21st Amendment. Also in , American women gained the right to vote when the 19th Amendment became law that August; Wilson had pushed Congress to pass the amendment. Powell, the Conservative MP for Wolverhampton South West, caused outrage when he warned of the dangers of enforced multiculturalism in Britain.

Full speech: Rivers of Blood. After explaining the concepts of Perestroika and Glasnost to an international audience, he shocked delegates by announcing the withdrawal of tank divisions from East Germany, Czechoslovakia and Hungary and a unilateral cut of , soldiers from the Soviet military. Relations with the West would never be the same. Force and the threat of force can no longer and should not be instruments of foreign policy.

Full speech: Gorbachev's UN speech. Terms and Conditions. Style Book. Weather Forecast. Accessibility links Skip to article Skip to navigation.

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Saturday 06 July Related Articles. Barack Obama. In Barack Obama. Telegraph on Facebook. American makers of plowshares could, with time and as required, make swords as well. But now we can no longer risk emergency improvisation of national defense; we have been compelled to create a permanent armaments industry of vast proportions.

Added to this, three and a half million men and women are directly engaged in the defense establishment. We annually spend on military security more than the net income of all United States corporations. This conjunction of an immense military establishment and a large arms industry is new in the American experience. The total influence -- economic, political, even spiritual -- is felt in every city, every State house, every office of the Federal government. We recognize the imperative need for this development. Yet we must not fail to comprehend its grave implications. Our toil, resources and livelihood are all involved; so is the very structure of our society.

In the councils of government, we must guard against the acquisition of unwarranted influence, whether sought or unsought, by the militaryindustrial complex. The potential for the disastrous rise of misplaced power exists and will persist. We must never let the weight of this combination endanger our liberties or democratic processes. We should take nothing for granted.

Only an alert and knowledgeable citizenry can compel the proper meshing of the huge industrial and military machinery of defense with our peaceful methods and goals, so that security and liberty may prosper together. Akin to, and largely responsible for the sweeping changes in our industrial-military posture, has been the technological revolution during recent decades.

In this revolution, research has become central; it also becomes more formalized, complex, and costly.

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A steadily increasing share is conducted for, by, or at the direction of, the Federal government. Today, the solitary inventor, tinkering in his shop, has been overshadowed by task forces of scientists in laboratories and testing fields.


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In the same fashion, the free university, historically the fountainhead of free ideas and scientific discovery, has experienced a revolution in the conduct of research. Partly because of the huge costs involved, a government contract becomes virtually a substitute for intellectual curiosity.

For every old blackboard there are now hundreds of new electronic computers. The prospect of domination of the nation's scholars by Federal employment, project allocations, and the power of money is ever present. Yet, in holding scientific research and discovery in respect, as we should, we must also be alert to the equal and opposite danger that public policy could itself become the captive of a scientifictechnological elite.

It is the task of statesmanship to mold, to balance, and to integrate these and other forces, new and old, within the principles of our democratic system -- ever aiming toward the supreme goals of our free society. Another factor in maintaining balance involves the element of time. As we peer into society's future, we -- you and I, and our government -- must avoid the impulse to live only for today, plundering, for our own ease and convenience, the precious resources of tomorrow.