Exeter: University of Exeter Press, Ellwood, David W. Hollywood in Europe. Experiences of a Cultural Hegemony. Amsterdam: VU University Press, Stokes, Melvis, and Richard Maltby, eds. Hollywood Abroad. Audiences and Cultural Exchange. London: BFI , Elsaesser, Thomas, ed. European Cinema. Face to Face with Hollywood. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, For the experience of the French film industry see Armes, Roy.
French Film. New York: Dutton, Crisp, Colin. Genre, Myth, and Convention in the French Cinema, — Bloomington: Indiana University Press, The Classic French Cinema — Hayward, Susan. French National Cinema. London: Routledge, Benghozi, Pierre, and Christian Delage. Paris: Harmattan, On the coming of sound to France see Barnier, Martin.
For a detailed analysis of the canon of French films from the s to thes see Hayward, Susan, and Ginette Vincendeau , eds. French Film: Texts and Contexts.
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London and New York: Routledge, McGerr, Cecelia. Boston: Twayne, Dale, R. Volumes I and II. Metuchen, NJ : Scarecrow, Cinema Yesterday and Today. New York: Dover, Jean Vigo is treated in Salles Gomes, P. Jean Vigo. Berkeley: University of California Press, Smith, John M. New York: Praeger, Simon, William G. The Films of Jean Vigo. Jean Renoir is dealt with by many writers. Faulkner, Christopher.
The Social Cinema of Jean Renoir. Princeton: Princeton University Press, Jean Renoir.
Boston: G. Hall, There are then several papers after — and before the First World War, some of them by well-known researchers such as Arnold Sommerfeld, Ludwig Hopf, Fritz Noether [  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ]. This collection of papers, by many different authors, shows that turbulence was already identified in Germany as a field of study in itself, in the years — During World War I, few papers were published in the field, the most notable ones being two papers by Geoffrey Ingram Taylor — [  ,  ].
After the war, many papers were published in English, French and German, using the terms turbulence and turbulent flow, see, e.
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Even Ludwig Prandtl and G. Taylor, whose first works in the s did not use the word turbulence, adopted it after for G. Taylor and for Ludwig Prandtl [  ,  ,  ,  ]. The word turbulence as a concept and a new field was now quasi universally accepted.
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The introduction of a specific noun for this subpart of fluid mechanics was made possible by the clear criterion published by Osborne Reynolds in After Reynolds and after William Thomson Lord Kelvin , there was a clear separation between laminar flow and turbulent flows. However the diffusion of the new noun was not immediate.
We reviewed here the diffusion of this term in the scientific literature, in English, in French and in German, from the beginning of the s to the beginning of the s. The adoption of this term was a way to recognize the specificity of high-Reynolds-number flows, and the need for a different characterization. The adoption of a given vocabulary was here a way to consider the diffusion of a new concept among researchers of the time. We found the following items. Reynolds, and Boussinesq used many words such as sinuous motion, irregular motion, eddy agitation, sinuous path The multiplicity of terms showed indeed the need for a noun to unify all these denominations.
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But prominent researchers in fluid mechanics have not employed it until The clear adoption of the terms was after World War I. Taylor, L. Prandtl, H. Heisenberg and of the German school, the very general adoption of the term turbulence marked the birth of a new field of fluid mechanics.
Sandra Schmidt is thanked for her help with the German language. Journal page Archives Sommaire. Article Article Outline. Access to the text HTML. Access to the PDF text If you experience reading problems with Firefox, please follow this procedure. Recommend this article.
Save as favorites. Free Article! Turbulence from to The birth of a noun and of a concept. Francois G.
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From to introduction of the term in fluid mechanics by William Thomson, but no by mainstream followers. Success of the diffusion of the new term and concept in the early twentieth century. In the English-language literature: a slow diffusion and two important publications in and Some glorious older-generation researchers never adopted the new term: Reynolds, Boussinesq, Rayleigh. The main shift seems to be the adoption of the term in two books published in and the third edition of the book of Horace Lamb, and the book of Lanchester.
In Germany, after a paper in , the shift was also — with many papers published before World War I, and several doctoral dissertations directly devoted to the study of turbulence. In France, a book is found in and two papers in After World War I, with the studies of G. Turbulence; The Legacy of A. On the dynamical theory of incompressible viscous fluids and the determination of the criterion Philos. About Boussinesq's turbulent viscosity hypothesis: historical remarks and a direct evaluation of its validity C. The Scope and Content Note of each finding will provide a general assessment of the research value of the collection.
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