How do international norms evolve? This book examines the manner in which sovereignty, a bedrock norm of international relations since the seventeenth century, has evolved in response to changing conceptions of the responsibilities of government.
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Whereas most previous studies of international norms have examined how norms influence policy decisions, this book asks, instead, how state policies actively shape international norms. Changing Norms through Actions contends that the concept of sovereignty is moving towards one in which states that are unable or unwilling to fulfill their domestic and international obligations are forced to relinquish certain sovereign responsibilities to the international community. As issues such as genocide, weapons of mass destruction, and terrorism have forced states to reassess their understandings of sovereignty, Ramos is interested in how understandings of norms - particularly long-held norms such as absolute sovereignty - change.
Gilpin , , War and Change in World Politics , p. This runs contrary to Waltz's argument. See his Theory of International Politics. There is a growing literature on the effects of intersubjective understandings on agency in international relations. There is a growing literature on the relationship between political process and political outcomes.
Changing Norms through Actions
See Schroeder , Paul W. See Ford , Franklin L. Kissinger , , A World Restored , p. The declaration is quoted in Hobsbawm , Eric J. Hayes , Carlton J. Hobsbawm , , Nations and Nationalism , p. See Kissinger , , A World Restored , p.
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Ford , , Europe, — , p. Putnam and Sons , , p. Bell and Sons , , p. For an excellent account of the discourse during the congress, see Webster, The Foreign Policy of Castlereagh. Norton and Company , , p. Hobsbawm , , The Age of Revolution , pp. Ferrell , Robert H. Dutton , , p. This was of course true only to a matter of degree.
One of the principal points of contention at the Congress was the disposition of Poland and Saxony. While the conflict was not over nationalist sentiments, it did involve the legitimist principle, which recognized that sovereigns could not be deprived of their dynastic rights. See Broglie , Le Duc de , ed.
Holsti , , Peace and War , p. At that point in time pan-Slavism was as potent a nationalist force as the self-identification of such groups as the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes.
It was in fact ridiculous because the people cannot decide until someone decides who are the people. This is stated in the first paragraph of the first article of the charter. There is of course a tension here inasmuch as self-determination may serve in cases as an expression of nationalist sentiment.
This tension is recognized in practice by the UN but is often resolved in favor of the cohesion of existing states. See Buchheit , , Secession , pp.
Jennifer M. Ramos
This reference to right and justice as a legitimate basis for state action is in marked contrast to the emphasis on international peace and security in the Charter of the UN. This willingness to subordinate national unity to superpower spheres of influence indicates that the termination of international conflicts was considered more important than national self-determination in these cases.
The key point here is that both the individualist view and the class view are markedly different from a nationalist view, understood in the fascist sense. See Garthoff , Raymond L. Examples of this include ethnically motivated genocides in Ethiopia and East Timor.
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Internal imperialism refers to such obvious cases as the Soviet Union, South Africa, and Yugoslavia but also includes some Western countries such as Spain. For the purposes of this article, it is reasonable to define the winning coalition of the cold war in the same way as was done for the cases discussed above: the members of the military alliance that triumphed. See, for example, Yearbook of the United Nations, , vol. The continuity in the texts of these resolutions supports the suggestion that the discourse has become fixed around the established goal.
Changing Norms through Actions: The Evolution of Sovereignty - Jennifer M. Ramos - Google Books
Stability does not refer here to the absence of conflict but to the maintenance of the system intact without drastic changes in its form. This usage follows that of Waltz in Theory of International Politics , pp. It is beyond the scope of this article to suggest whether it is shifting more toward multipolarity or unipolarity.
Waltz , , Theory of International Politics , pp. Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection. This data will be updated every 24 hours. Login Alert. Log in.
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